1. Evidence, theories and models in Roman population history; 2. The Polybian manpower figures and the size of the Italian population on the eve of the Hannibalic War; 3. Census procedures and the meaning of the republican and early-imperial census figures; 4. Peasants, citizens and soldiers, 201 BC-28 BC; 5. The Augustan census figures and Italy's urban network; 6. Survey archaeology and demographic developments in the Italian countryside.