The world is experiencing a shortage of helium-3, a rare isotope with applications in homeland security, national security, medicine, industry, and science. For many years the supply of helium-3 from the nuclear weapons program outstripped the demand for helium-3. The demand was small enough that a substantial stockpile of helium-3 accumulated. After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the federal government began deploying neutron detectors at the U.S. border to help secure the nation against smuggled nuclear and radiological material. The deployment of this equipment created new demand for helium-3. Use of the polarized helium-3 medical imaging technique was increased. As a result, the size of the stockpile shrank. This book discusses the nature of the shortage; federal actions undertaken so far to address it and current and potential sources of helium-3 and options for increasing the supply.