The last few years the term Community Music Therapy increasingly has come into circulation, and with it, fresh debates about the relevance and meaning of the term and of the practices it refers to. How could Community Music Therapy be described and defined? What characteristics of human nature and late modern culture indicate the relevance of Community Music Therapy? What preliminary descriptors could be developed for Community Music Therapy practice? What are the implications for the discipline and profession of music therapy? These are the questions addressed in this study, which is characterised as a qualitative inquiry with a strong theoretical component. Available literature resources in four countries -- Germany, Norway, Britain, and the US -- are examined as a foundation for the elaboration of a metatheoretical platform from which the history, importance, and significance of Community Music Therapy can be accounted for. The casework presented and analysed in Chapters 6 and 7 is chosen as part of the ongoing narrative and accompanied by extensive commentary on methodological implications. Analysis is given to the empirical material from several interlocking perspectives, each time adding up to a further step in the overall theoretical project of the dissertation. A context-inclusive Model of Music Therapy Processes, which challenges conventional music therapy theories and practices, is developed in Chapter 8, before the final Chapters 9 and 10 synthesise the various perspectives and material taken in pursuit of provisional answers to the four research questions.