Energy constitutes the motive force of the civilisation and it determines, in a high degree, the level of economy development as a whole. Despite the increase use of different type of energy, particularly, renewable energy sources, fossil fuels will continue dominating the energy combinations in the world near future. However, oil reserves are declining and this situation would have a negative impact in the future economic development of many countries all over the world. In Europe, the import energy dependency is rising. Unless Europe can make domestic energy more competitive in the next 20 to 30 years, around 70% of the European Unions energy requirements, compared to 50% today, will be met by imported products some of them from regions threatened by insecurity. Now, the energy requirements of the different countries are so high that, for the first time in the humanity's history, there is a need to consider different types of available energy sources and their reserves to plan the economic development of the countries. At the same time, there is also a need to use these sources in the most efficient possible manner in order to sustain that development. The EU leads the world in demand management, in promoting new and renewable forms of energy. If the EU backs up a new common policy with a common voice on energy questions, Europe can lead the global search for energy solutions. However, EU must act urgently because it takes many years to bring innovation on stream in the energy sector, as well as to make productive the investments that are need to update the energy infrastructure in the region. This book provides leading-edge research on this field of study from around the globe.